Carbon nanotubes may revolutionise the process of converting salt water to fresh water and provide an energy-saving solution to the increasing global demand for fresh drinking water, researchers say.
In a new report, computer modelling was used to study how fluid flows at the molecular level. One of their aims was to find the optimum design for a carbon nanotube (CNT) membrane that can be used in the desalination process.
Thee simulations suggest that this membrane may be 20 to 5,000 times more permeable to water than current commercial scale reverse osmosis membranes, depending on tube density.
“If a new material is found that can maximise water transport through the separating membrane, while at the same time rejecting dissolved ions and other particulates in seawater, reverse osmosis would be a much more efficient process,” said lead author Jason Reese, professor of thermodynamics and fluid mechanics at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland.
Demand for drinking water on the increase
With the global population predicted to reach 9.5 billion by the latter half of this century, the demand for drinking water is only going to increase. Already, more than a billion people are faced with insufficient fresh water resources.
This week, 20 former heads of state, including former U.S. president Bill Clinton and former Japanese prime minister Yasuo Fukuda, warned of an impending "water crisis", and will establish a panel to tackle a worldwide leadership gap on the issue.
Trends in climate change have been shown to predict a redistribution of rainfall globally, with dry regions of the planet only getting dryer.
Huge costs of desalination
Most desalination plants convert salt water to fresh water using reverse osmosis. Pressure is applied to the salt water solution forcing the water through a permeable membrane that separates the pure water from the salts.
There are huge costs associated with desalination plants, however, as they require expensive infrastructure and large amounts of energy. With current technology, it is five times more expensive to desalinate water than to extract groundwater, but CNTs may change this.
Carbon nanotubes are sheets of graphene – one-atom thick carbon – rolled into cylinders. Their versatility lies in the fact that they can be a nanometre in diameter, with a tube length many millions of times longer. They are highly efficient at repelling salt ions. In solution, salts are surrounded by hydrating water molecules, which must be shed in order to pass through the CNTs.
This process takes a lot of energy and as a result doesn’t happen very often. Therefore, the right sized nanotube will optimise water transport while minimising salt ion permeability.
German Schoolchildren will Cook and Clean for â€śRefugeesâ€ť as Part of Work Experience 2015-10-13 0:44
Schoolchildren from an undisclosed school in the city of LĂĽbeck, Schleswig-Holstein, will spend a week doing housework for so-called â€śrefugeesâ€ť.
The idea was sold to parents at a parentsâ€™ meeting as a â€śpractical internshipâ€ś, but has sparked outrage online.
A letter to the parents said their children will be going to â€śrefugeeâ€ť accommodations and will be making beds, sorting clothes, and ...
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Host Franchesca Ramsey begins by claiming that the term “peanut gallery” is offensive because it was once the place where black people were “forced” to sit at the theater ...
Migrants Dump Garbage from Their Balconies at German Asylum Center 2015-10-12 23:35
German authorities expect up to 1.5 million asylum seekers to arrive in Germany this year – up from 750,000 last month.
So they can expect more of this–
Migrants Dump Garbage from their Balconies : Augsburg Asylum Center, Germany
In a recent poll, the number of “frightened” Germans jumped from 38% to 51% in three weeks.
Muslim Statistics reported, via Religion of Peace:
The latest ...
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As we noted over the weekend, the US has now thrown in the towel on the ill-fated (and that’s putting it lightly) strategy of training Syrian fighters and sending them into battle only to be captured and killed by other Syrian fighters who the US also trained.
The Pentagon’s effort to recruit 5,400 properly “vetted” anti-ISIS rebels by the end of ...
Migrant Crisis stand-up routine - Sam Hyde 2015-10-10 18:07
YouTube description: "Migrant" "Crisis" AKA Muslim Road Trip. Hundreds of thousands of astronauts, doctors, sciencemen, and peaceful clock inventors descend upon the countries with the most collective guilt and free stuff.
This was pretty good man... I wasn't expecting this reaction from the same Boston college audience who so thoroughly disapproved of my 'Mike Brown' routine. I think the invasion of ...