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Never-Before-Seen Stage of Planet Birth Revealed 2013-01-03 0:00
Astronomers studying a newborn star have caught a detailed glimpse of planets forming around it, revealing a never-before seen stage of planetary evolution.
Large gas giant planets appear to be clearing a gap in the disk of material surrounding the star, and using gravity to channel material across the gap to the interior, helping the star to grow. Theoretical simulations have predicted such bridges between outer and inner portions of disks surrounding stars, but none have been directly observed until now.
An international team of astronomers have used the partially completed Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to study a young star about 450 light-years from Earth. They identified two thin filaments of gas streaming from the outer disk to the inner, across a broad gap cut by young planets.
"Currently, the only mechanism known to produce such gap-crossing dense molecular flows, with residual carbon monoxide gas more diffusely spread out inside the gap, is planetary formation," lead scientist Simon Casassus of the University of Chile told SPACE.com in an email.
Observations made with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) telescope of the disc of gas and cosmic dust around the young star HD 142527, showing vast streams of gas flowing across the gap in the disc. These are the first direct observations of these streams.
Bridging the gap
Far from Earth, the fledgling star HD 142527 is nearing the end of its formation process. Around 2 million years old, the young star is about twice as massive as the sun, though it is still slowly growing. A disk of spinning dust and gas left over from its formation surrounds the star, and from this material, planets are being created.
As baby planets, or planetesimals, travel through the disk, they absorb the material around them, creating gaps. Such paths have been seen in a number of newborn systems. HD 142527 boasts a gap that starts at a point equivalent to Saturnís position in the solar system and extends outward 14 times as far. The gap, which scientists had previously measured, is so large that several planets would be required to clear it of debris.
Using ALMA to observe the system, Casassus and his team have found that the gap is not completely empty. Two filaments reach from the outer disk to the inner, indicating that at least two young planets exist within the space.
The gravity of the planets draws material from the outer ring inward. But while some of the gas and dust falls into orbit around the young gas giants, a fraction of it overshoots the planetesimals, traveling instead to the inner disk. Eventually, the star absorbs the material.
These bridges are important to the continued growth of the systemís young sun. The inner disk around the star is too small to sustain its growth; Casassus and his team concluded that the disk around HD 142527 would be depleted within a year without a bridge. Planets funneling material from the outer disk to the inner would help nourish their star.
The process wonít continue forever, however.
"Eventually, the proto-gaseous giants will exhaust the material within their radius of influence," Casassus said. "How much material will have infallen, in what timescales, and how this impacts the planet location and eventual migration are all open questions in the field of planet formation. Our observations are a step forward."
Muslim Rape Gang in Rhode Island 2015-10-10 2:47
2 Mohammeds, a Yazeed, & a Tareq accused of raping two 18 year old female Johnson & Wales students:
By Amanda Milkovits, Lynn Arditi, Providence Journal, Oct 7, 2015 (thanks to Andy Bostom)
PROVIDENCE, R.I. — Four male Johnson & Wales University students have been arrested in connection with a reported sexual assault and alleged drugging of two female students at the university.
South Carolina city to pay $6.5 million over police shooting of black man 2015-10-10 1:18
The family of an unarmed black man shot in the back by a white police officer will get a $6.5 million settlement from North Charleston in South Carolina, city officials said on Thursday.
The man, Walter Scott, 50, was shot after fleeing a traffic stop in April. The shooting was caught on a bystander's video and reignited a national outcry over ...
Finally, The CIA Admits Covering Up JFK Assassination 2015-10-09 23:56
Suspicions that the CIA covered up JFK’s murder have finally been confirmed, according to an explosive Politico report out this week. Fifty-two years after the President’s death, declassified documents show that the CIA were in communication with alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald before JFK’s murder in 1963, and they were monitoring his mail since 1959.
Not only that but John McCone, who was Chief of the ...
More Great Media Moments in Muslim Achievement: Headscarf Lady Wins Bakeoff In Britain 2015-10-09 23:18
Last month, America rejoiced when a 14-year-old Muslim lad in Irving, Texas discovered time, thus solving the universe’s ongoing problem that everything happens at once. This month, Britain is exulting that a Muslim lady can cook better than most Brits. From the New York Times:
Muslim Winner of Baking Contest Defies Prejudice in Britain
By Dan Bilefsky, OCT. 8, 2015
LONDON — Prime Minister ...
Israelis Declare Carrying Firearms Helpful in Preventing 'Lone Wolf' Attacks 2015-10-09 22:39
In the wake of several “lone wolf” attacks, the Israeli government is encouraging citizens to carry personal firearms with them at all times while in public. The attacks have been conducted by Palestinians wielding nothing more than knives, but have struck terror into the heart of Israel.
During the attacks, which are being conducted in reprisal for a long series of ...